Tuesday, September 29, 2015
Thursday, June 18, 2015
Murder in Cathedral
Dissimilar to those specialists who keep up an unaltered perspective of the world and of the advancement of their specialty, T. S. Eliot's life was one of development. In his childhood, he was basically a humorist, ridiculing the traditions of society in ballads, for example, "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" or "Representation of a Lady." Later, he turned into a mosaic craftsman of impeccable sensibility when, piece by part, he sorted out his cursing picture of post-World War I progress in The Waste Land (1922). Still later, discovering his moral negativity basically sterile, he peaked his long enthusiasm for rationality, theology, scholarly history, and government by turning into a royalist in governmental issues, a classicist in writing, and an Anglo-Catholic in religion.
Conceived in the United States and instructed at Harvard, Eliot early settled in England. All through his initial profession he had grown more than an easygoing enthusiasm for the show, not just as a work of art all by itself, however in the theater as a method for guideline. Such early sections as Sweeney Agonistes (1932) entice by their inadequacy, yet Murder in the Cathedral exhibits Eliot's authority of the excellent disastrous structure.
In this amazingly powerful play, Eliot joins gadgets got from the Greeks—the theme, static activity, and Aristotelian purgation—with his significant responsibility to the Anglo-Catholic ritual. Murder in the Cathedral from various perspectives takes after a medieval ethical quality play whose object is to edify and additionally engross. Yet the work is never just ethically informational. It transcends instruction on the grounds that Archbishop Thomas Becket's inward anguish is made so individual and immortal. Becket's death turns out to be all the more genuine by the ensuing political and fleeting occasions it inspires.
Eliot solidly accepted that twentieth century dramatization, to be best, must be composed in verse, a conviction he imparted to William Butler Yeats, his Irish contemporary. Eliot's verse is moving without being pompously wonderful in light of the fact that it achieves the group of onlookers on a level that Eliot himself termed the sound-related creative energy. Reacting from the oblivious, the observers are drawn profoundly into the dramatization and start to share Becket's inner desolations by partaking in the practically primitive cadenced controls of Eliot's misleadingly basic verse.
What makes Eliot's play so convenient is that the four allurements offered to Thomas by the seducers are decisively those confronted, whether intentionally or unwittingly, by the twentieth century group of onlookers: those of common joy, fleeting force, otherworldly power, and, at long last and most quietly, endless wonderfulness. Thomas negates every one of them, straightforwardly, however is enchanted for a period by the fourth flirt, who shows that if Thomas somehow happened to continue on his course, he would be purposely courting suffering to accomplish interminable bliss with God. Inevitably, Thomas counters the contention with a standout amongst the best lines in the play: "The last allurement and the best conspiracy/ Is to do the right deed for the wrong reason." Thomas' assurance of the profound rightness he could call his own behavior reflects that of individuals from the crowd, who gradually get to be mindful they could call their own culpability in acting accurately for deficient reason in any matter, or even of acting egotistically for a decent end. The inclusion of the gathering of people so significantly is another tribute to Eliot's virtuoso.
Eliot additionally takes a shot at still another level, that of the contention of forces. Every force might maybe be supported in its own specific manner, and Thomas perceives that the lord and the worldly power he speaks to have some avocation. The ruler, besides, had once been Thomas' nearest companion and had, actually, made him ecclesiastical overseer. Thomas contemplates on the obligations to the worldly domain, to fellowship, and to appreciation, yet he keeps on keeping up the power of the otherworldly request over the fleeting. On the off chance that a few things are Caesar's, they are Caesar's simply because God allowed that to be so.
Murder in the Cathedral was initially arranged in Canterbury Cathedral, a wonderful Gothic artifact giving a most striking setting. Still frequently created in a congregation building, the play picks up quickness through the verisimilitude accomplished by the blend of setting, formality, verse, and tune. Notwithstanding Thomas' splendid Christmas sermon, which opens the second demonstration, Eliot does not lecture. He doesn't lessen the circumstance to a basic instance of good versus detestable. Rather, he makes a contention of personas, each with an all around created reason. The decision is between choices, not contrary energies. Thomas, who expects that he may be a casualty of the wrongdoing of pride, must nevertheless pick either punishment or salvation.
Eliot, constantly aware of history, realized that the Shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury was among the most popular of medieval objects of dedication and journey. Along these lines, even the supports of the knights who murdered Thomas merit genuine consideration. More than one twentieth century chronicled pundit has thought about whether Thomas were not "dead set" on paradise, a question that Thomas himself contemplates. In the event that the knights' defense is to be dismisses, the inquiry stays in respect to how their very own lot justifications does not keep on being a piece of what persuades individual activity.
Murder in the Cathedral is a convincing show for praising the themes of confidence, support, power, and clash, which keep on repeating through the ages. Eliot made an ageless work that envisions his significantly religious and otherworldly gathering of lyrics Four Quartets (1943) and his later medications of very much alike themes in plays, for example, The Cocktail Party (1949) and The Confidential Clerk (1953). The majority of Eliot's later verse and plays, notwithstanding, must be read in view of Murder in the Cathedral, for it speaks to an essential accomplishment in his recognized profes
Wednesday, June 17, 2015
Monday, June 15, 2015
According to Aristotle, a tragedy is an imitation an action according to the law of probability and necessity. It is rooted in the fundamental order of the universe. Therefore, it arouses not only pity but also fear as the audience can envision themselves within the Cause- and- effect chain that is created.
Murder in the cathedral written by T.S.Eliot, is a ritualistic poetic drama, where the writer is given the opportunity to consider the inner thoughts and doubts of the central character. T.S. Eliot has used elements of the Greek Tragedy in this particular play for example the Greek chorus, which comments and responds to the unfolding drama. In Murder in the Cathedral the chorus comprises of women of Canterbury. The Greek chorus is an iconic element in the play.
The first feature of a tragedy according to Aristotle is the 'Plot'. Aristotle further provides the structure of a plot itself. The first component of the plot is the 'Exposition'. In the play Murder in the Cathedral the exposition will probably be the beginning of the play when the women of Canterbury and the other commoners gather at the Archbishop's Hall to discuss the return of Thomas Becket. Here they also introduce the conflict that had taken place in the past between Henry II and Thomas Becket because of which he was exiled or fled to France. Second is the Rising action, the rising action in this play would be the entrance of Thomas Becket and the tempers. One by one as Becket declines the suggestions of each temper it indicates the rising action. Third, is the climax, the climax arrives when the fourth and last temper arrives and suggests that Thomas make himself a martyr. As in doing so he will be remembered as eternally powerful. The tragic flaw or 'Hamartia' is recognized soon after this as Thomas admits to considering martyrdom in his private time. He does not want to be hated by all but be remembered eternally. He struggles with pride. This is followed by the falling action, which is probably his death. And at last the play ends with the denouement when the chorus claims that living up to the sacrifice of Thomas Becket is very difficult however taking up the challenge will make them spiritually richer.
The plot therefore is structurally self contained as Aristotle demands, except for the beginning. T.S.Eliot wrote the play assuming that his audience would be aware of the conflict that had taken place between King Henry II and Archbishop Thomas Becket. The incidents however are bound together by internal necessity, each action leading inevitably to the next with no outside intervention.
The plot of Murder in the Cathedral resembles a complex plot, which includes both 'reversal of intention' or 'peripeteia' as well as 'recognition connected to the catastrophe' or 'anagnorisis'. Here the reversal of intention takes place at the end of part I and in the interlude where Becket does not succumb to the temptation offered by the tempers and making himself a martyr for the wrong reasons and decides that he will "no longer act or suffer," and will instead face `his martyrdom not as something he wants, but as something he is willing to accept. He has accepted his fate.
Therefore in all these ways we see that Murder in the Cathedral by T.S.Eliot follows Aristotle's plot structure therefore enabling us to analyze it as such.
Influence of Aristotle on T.S. Eliot's Murder in the Cathedral
History is past yet its knowledge is always important for future. Aristotle's concepts about plays are still important for playwrights. The world of playwrights like Shakespeare and T.S. Eliot has always looked up to his understanding of tragedies in his book "Poetics". It is said that past dies with time but these renowned playwrights have kept Aristotle alive for generations and his place in the coming years will be the same as it is today.
If you don't believe me you can refer to T.S. Eliot's remarkably effective play "Murder in the Cathedral" which has a deep influence of Aristotelian concept of tragedy where a great man accepts challenges bravely that attempts to stop him from accepting his fate. The play is a sequence of events that had occurred due to a chain of cause and effect of actions. The play links Greek devices like the chorus, static action, and Aristotelian purgation—with his profound commitment to the Anglo-Catholic liturgy.
"Murder in the Cathedral" is known to demonstrate Eliot's mastery of the classic tragic form. This verse drama portrays the assassination of Archbishop Thomas Becket in Canterbury Cathedral in 1170. The chorus in the play uses the element of foreshadowing which is common among Greek tragedies. "Murder in the Cathedral" in many ways resembles a medieval morality play whose purpose is to enlighten as well as entertain. Yet the work is never merely morally instructive.
Eliot's creation of Thomas has great influence of Greek tragedies. Even though these tragedies have poor ending for their heroes, audiences are meant to respond to the bravery with which these heroes have accepted their deaths. The author used the concept of 'tragic flaw' to reflect the challenge that Thomas conforms in accepting his fate i.e. his pride and moral superiority. These are qualities that make Thomas an effective Chancellor and empower him to defend his Church. However, his pride is also a big obstacle.
Eliot's audience also knew the basic plot of the myth like the Greek audience, so the experience of the play was about relating to the hero who accepted his fate as a martyr. The beauty is not in whether he would die but in how he will accept his death. The introduction of tempters is to enrich the play. This introduction emphasizes on the stress on Becket's pride, the flow he must overcome to accept his martyrdom peacefully for the right reason. Thomas realistic flaw does not stop the audience to look at him as a Greek hero.
By using these Aristotelian concepts for tragedies, playwrights are able to achieve success in their writing and leave their mark on the coming generations.
1. Aristotle - Poetics
2. T.S. Eliot - murder in the cathedral
3. Sophocles- Oedipus Rex
Sunday, June 14, 2015
MURDER IN THE CATHEDRAL
Analysis of the Plot
(Based on Aristotle's Poetics)
5TCE - 1314025
Department Of Theatre Studies
The plot is the most important feature of a tragedy. Aristotle defines it to be the arrangements of the incidents, which in this case of Murder in the Cathedral, is not the story itself but the way the incidents occur, depending on it's tightly constructed cause and effect chain of actions. These actions are superior to those that depend primarily on the characters and personality of the protagonist, Thomas Becket.
While analyzing Murder in the Cathedral, we could recognize the influence of Greek tragedy on Eliot's creation of Thomas. Eliot writes his protagonist just like it was prescribed in the Aristotelian conception of tragedy that a 'great' man would brave challenges that attempted to ambush him from accepting his providence. Audiences were meant to respond to the bravery with which the heroes in Greek tragedies accepted their deaths, even though it ended poorly for their heroes. This could make a complete relativity to Eliot's character Thomas, and the series of events that his actions cause leading us to the pen ultimatum.
While the concept of a 'tragic flaw' is often overstated, especially in the case of Thomas, it is worth mentioning that he has often been defined by characteristic qualities that both aid and hampered his journey toward accepting his martyrdom.
Murder in the Cathedral puts the base to the action of Thomas Becket returning from his exile, which paves way for the other agents (characters and the chorus) to perform their respective actions according to their moral and intellectual characteristics, expressed in what they do and say. This, in turn, forms one constituent part of the tragedy, giving space for the ordered sequence of events, which make up the action being imitated. Thus, Aristotle also says, Tragedy, like all poetry, is an imitation.
The plot centers on various matters, the most prominent being the relationship between King Henry II and Thomas Becket. At the beginning of the play, when the herald announces Becket's return, there is a sense of doom in the minds of the women of Canterbury in the Chorus. This foreshadows the end of the play from the very beginning.
The Chorus of Canterbury Women worry that Becket's return could make their lives more problematical, by angering the king. Later on, three priests enter the hall and also lament his absence and debate the ramifications of his potential return. All of this would lead us to what Aristotle calls Unity. This would potentially mean that a plot is not unified because it is concerned with a single person (Becket for instance). An indeterminately large number of things happen to any one person, not all of which constitute a unity; likewise a single individual performs many actions, and they do not make up a single action.
In this play, the Cathedral is one determinate structure- the structure of the various sections of the events. This would only work if the transposition or removal of any one section dislocates and changes the whole. If the presence or absence of something has no discernible effect, it is not part of the whole. Hence the entire play revolves around the cathedral and the politics within. If taken apart, it not only changes the whole, but also dislocates it along the way. This theory could also be closely associated with the theory of deconstruction, as explained by Derrida.
The plot of Murder in the Cathedral also supports the idea of universality. What is plausible is possible; we are disinclined to believe what has not happened is possible, but it is obvious that what has happened is possible- because it would not have happened if it were not. Eliot has produced a mixture of theology and tragedy, and extending this one step further would have the "tragic" hero having little or no hamartia. Here, the plot may be the universalization of a conventional falsehood; hence, as we have seen, Aristotle has no objections to plots based on traditional beliefs about the gods, even though he would dismiss those beliefs on philosophical grounds. Eliot adapts this understanding to a more optimistic, Christian purpose by suggesting that Christians mourn the world that kills martyrs, while celebrating the sacrifice. It is a similar mystery and contradiction, although Eliot's conception is about subsuming one's individuality to God rather than flaunting it in the face of greater forces.
The journey of Becket in order to change himself would lead us to another fact called recognition, which marks the change from ignorance to knowledge. Recognition is best when it occurs simultaneously with a reversal, and Becket's action of reversal proves to be successful at this. Historiography, by contrast, although bound to the truth of what happened, has no commitment to universality; history records what events form a sequence linked by necessity or probability. Aristotle explicitly rejects plots constructed like works of historiography, just as had rejected plots constructed like biographies. Just like in Oedipus Rex, the peripeteia of the play is the Messenger's reversal of intention; in seeking to help Oedipus by telling him that Polybus and Merope were not his real parents, he instead creates the opposite effect, providing the crucial piece of information that will reveal that Oedipus has indeed killed his father and married his mother. In Murder in the Cathedral, the last temptation is sudden and unexpected. This is another step in Aristotle's argument. By allowing the King's assassins to kill him, he can acquire the glory of martyrdom. Plots like these could acquire different, yet inconsistent conclusions. Becket soon realizes that even the desire of martyrdom if filled with sinful pride will lead him to the end. He refuses to commit the sin of cherishing the desire. However, as suggested by Aristotle in Poetics, one could be allowed to reach to different conclusions without contradiction. Plots like Murder in the Cathedral are considered superior, where harmful action is either planned or carried out with full knowledge of the circumstances and consequences. Therefore, the murder of Becket explores this idea of bringing superiority to the plot, regardless of the consequences.
1. T.S ELIOT - MURDER IN THE CATHEDRAL
2. ARISTOTLE – POETICS
3. DAVE MALLOY - http://davemalloy.com/cathedral.html
4. SOPHOCLES - OEDIPUS REX
Hamartia in Oedipus Rex
According to Aristotle, a tragic hero is a distinguished person occupying a high position or having a high status in life and in very prosperous circumstances falling into misfortune on account of a "hamartia" or some defect of character. He should be good or fine man though not perfect. There is nothing to arouse the feelings of pity or fear in seeing a bad character pass from prosperity into misfortune while the ruin of a man who represents near-perfection in the moral sense is repugnant and horrible. The tragic hero is neither a moral paragon nor a scoundrel. He should be true to type, and consistent or true to himself. Aristotle would attribute disaster or catastrophe in a tragedy to an error rather than a deliberate crime.
The main requirements of Aristotle in regard to the tragic hero are thus (1) high social standing, (2) moral excellence or goodness, and (3) some fault of character, or error committed by the hero in ignorance. Oedipus answers to all these requirements.
Oedipus is a man of royal birth; he is brought up by a King and a Queen and he himself afterwards becomes a King and marries a Queen. He is thus a man of social eminence and possessing excellent qualities of character, though his is by no means perfect. We cannot say that his misfortune is due to any defect in his character, though his defects do produce the impression that such a man must pay for his defects. It would be wrong to say that he is a puppet in the hands of fate. Within certain limits he is a free agent, though it must be recognized that the prophecy of the oracle would yet have been fulfilled.
Oedipus is a good king, a great well wisher of his people, a man of integrity, an honest and great administrator and an outstanding intellect. He is a pious man who believes in oracles, respects the bonds of family, and hates impurity. His belief in the prophecies of gods is the very basis of the whole play. The suppliant people approach him almost as a god and he is honoured as a saviour. When Creon reveals the cause of the city's suffering, Oedipus declares his resolve to track down the criminal and he utters a terrible curse upon him. We can say that Oedipus is almost an ideal King. He also shows himself as a devoted husband and a loving father. He shows due consideration for the opinions and feelings of Jocasta and he lavishes all his affection on his daughters. His relations with the Chorus are also very cordial and he shows all due courtesy to them. In short both as a man and as a king Oedipus is worthy of high respect.
However, Oedipus has his faults. He is hot-tempered, hasty in his judgment, proud of his intelligence, and random in his decisions. He quickly loses his temper when he finds the prophet reluctant to reveal the things that he knows. He jumps to the conclusion that Teiresias and Creon have hatched a conspiracy against him. This attitude of distrust towards the prophet is in sharp contrast to Oedipus's genuine piety. Oedipus belongs to the world of politics and human standards rather than to the divine order of the world. His piety fails also later on when, under the influence of Jocasta, he becomes somewhat skeptical regarding the oracle.
An outstanding feature of Oedipus's character is an inherent feeling of pride in his own wisdom. Because of this arrogance, Oedipus certainly alienates some of our sympathy. When self-confidence takes the form of pride, haughtiness, arrogance or insolence, it becomes disgusting and obnoxious. His attitude of intolerance towards both Teiresias and Creon and his highly offensive and insulting words to both of them create in us the impression that he is paving the way for his own downfall. Of course, Oedipus has already committed the crimes which make him a sinner in the eyes of the god, in his own eyes, and in the eyes of other people. But the tragedy lay in discovery that he is guilty of them. If the crimes had remained unknown there would hardly have been any tragedy. Tragedy comes with the fact for discovery both for Jocasta and himself.
It would be a flaw in the logic to say that Oedipus suffers because of his sin of pride, but his pride is not the direct cause of his tragedy. He tried to avoid the fulfillment of the prophecies made by oracle. He killed his father and married his mother. His tragedy is a tragedy of error. If he had been a little more careful, things would have taken a different shape. He might have avoided the quarrel on the road if he had not been so proud or hot-tempered; and he might have refused to marry a woman old enough if he had not been blinded by the pride of his intelligence in solving the riddle of the Sphinx. But, then, the prophecies of the oracle would have been fulfilled in some other way, because nothing could have been prevented their fulfillment. Pride has little to do with Oedipus's killing his father and marrying his mother.
If Oedipus had not relentlessly pursued his investigations, he might have been spared the shock of discovery. Something in him drives him forward on the road to discovery. After Teiresias has first refused to tell him anything and then uttered some frightening prophecies. Oedipus is discouraged by Jocasta to continue his investigations. But he pays no heed to her philosophy of living at random. She makes another effort to stop his investigations when she has herself realized the truth, but again she failed. The Theban shepherd too tries, but in vain. It is this insistence on the truth that leads to the discovery in which lies the tragedy. We may interrupt this insistence on the truth as a form of pride, the pride of intellect, or the pride of knowing everything. The link of cause and effect is unmistakable between Oedipus's pride of intellect and Oedipus's discovery for his sins. But there is no strong link between his pride and the actual committing of his sins because the sins would have been committed in any case, if the oracle was to be fulfilled. The oracle did say that Oedipus would be guilty of those crimes but no oracle said that Oedipus must discover the truth.
Oedipus is thus an authentic tragic hero in the Aristotelian sense because his tragedy is as much due to his own initiatives in discovering the truth as to external circumstances. To the modern mind, a high social position is not necessary for the tragic hero nor do they recognize the validity of oracles too.
In Oedipus we see the helplessness of man in the face of the circumstances and his essential greatness. The manner in which Oedipus blinds himself after realizing his guilt and in which he endures his punishment raise him high in our esteem. The spirit of Oedipus remains unconquered even in his defeat and that is the essential fact about a tragic hero.
Comparison between Oedipus Rex and Medea
In Medea, a tragedy written by Euripides, the focus is on conflict in human spirit between Medea's love for her children and the desire for revenge. The story of Oedipus Rex, written by Sophocles, is very different and more complex. He uses dramatic irony and close comparison to make the audience think and to try to figure out the meanings behind the words.
The plot is the most important aspect of the tragedy. Aristotle tells us that a plot is a representation of an action and must be presented as a unified whole. The plot of Oedipus Rex has a beginning, middle and an end.
In the play Medea, the reader can see the possible outcome of the tragedy in the very beginning. There is not much higher development in this play.
Blog on The definition of a tragedy according to Artistotle and the The tragedies of Oedipus Rex and Medea.
"A tragedy, then, is the imitation of an action that is serious and also, as having magnitude, complete in itself; in language with pleasurable accessories, each kind brought in separately in the parts of the work; in a dramatic, not in a narrative form; with incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to accomplish its catharsis of such emotions."
"Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action of high importance, complete and of some amplitude; in language enhanced by distinct and varying beauties; acted not narrated; by means of pity and fear effectuating its purgation of these emotions." (L. J. Potts: 24).
Excepting the famous concepts of "unit of time" (or length of tragedy) and "character's flaw" (or hamartia), probably there's not other concept or part in Aristotle's Poetics as puzzling and celebrated as the famous definition of tragedy.
In his Poetics, Aristotle outlined the ingredients necessary for a good tragedy, and based his formula on what he considered to be the perfect tragedy, Sophocles's Oedipus the King. According to Aristotle, a tragedy must be an imitation of life in the form of a serious story that is complete in itself; in other words, the story must be realistic and narrow in focus.
A good tragedy will evoke pity and fear in its viewers, causing the viewers to experience a feeling of catharsis. Catharsis, in Greek, means "purgation" or "purification"; running through the gamut of these strong emotions will leave viewers feeling elated, in the same way we often claim that crying might ultimately make you feel better.
Aristotle also outlined the characteristics of an ideal tragic hero. He must be "better than we are," a man who is superior to the average man in some way. In Oedipus's case, he is superior not only because of social standing, but also because he is smart: he is the only person who could solve the Sphinx's riddle. At the same time, a tragic hero must evoke both pity and fear, and Aristotle claims that the best way to do this is if he is imperfect. A character with a mixture of good and evil is more compelling that a character who is merely good. And Oedipus is far from perfect; although a clever man, he is blind to the truth and stubbornly refuses to believe Teiresias's warnings. Although he is a good father, he unwittingly fathered children in incest. A tragic hero suffers because of his hamartia, a Greek word that is often mistakenly translated as "tragic flaw" but really means "mistake". Oedipus' mistake - killing his father at the crossroads - is made unknowingly. Indeed, for him, there is no way of escaping his fate.
Hubris is translated as excessive pride. This term inevitably comes up almost every time you talk about a piece of ancient Greek literature. There's no denying that Oedipus is a proud man. Of course, he's got pretty good reason to be. He's the one that saved Thebes from the Sphinx. If he hadn't come along and solved the Sphinx's riddle, the city would still be in the thrall of the creature. It seems that Oedipus rightly deserves the throne of Thebes.
As far as heroic or non heroic behaviour is concerned the battle between good and evil seems to always be waged. In contrasting Oedipus and Medea we see this battle again, but with a twist because the tales both end in tragedy. The question is, however, in keeping with our discussion of heroes, whether or not a heroic behaviour is displayed by either Oedipus or Medea during the battles. The answer is yes and no. There are many differences between Oedipus and Medea but in the end they ultimately destroy everything around them that they love the most because of the wrong choices they make in the face of anger. First of all however Medea does display some heroic qualities by showing that she is willing to do whatever is necessary to get the job done. In this case it was to be with Jason. As discussed before heroes are clever and resourceful. Medea certainly was both. Instead of using brut force to accomplish her plans, Medea uses her mind instead. Physical strength is always impressive but Medea uses cleverness and intelligence which are more impressive as heroic qualities. Things change a bit though when she poisons the King of Corinth with the poison gifts taken to him by her children. This plan makes Medea into the perfect villain. In this role of villain Medea's behaviour is then seen as cunning and manipulative and alternates between rational and irrational, and in the end is just plain evil. On the other hand Oedipus' downfall was his heroic quality of always seeking the truth no matter the cost. It was the need for truth that caused him to consult the oracle and learn about
the prophecy. This need for truth caused his sins to be revealed to the world. As with all heroes he would not stop until he had what he was after. He was not to be stopped until he had it. He sought the truth in the end though it was his pride that was responsible for his downfall. Pride was responsible for him not stepping aside at the crossroads. Heroes need to know when to use good judgment. Oedipus did not use good judgment. He let pride over ride that. It was pride that caused him to want to solve sphinx's riddle which helped fulfill the second part of the tragic prophecy. Also his pride played a part in his eagerness to find Laius's killer, believing that he was the only one who could do it and he wanted to show it off. Both Medea and Oedipus' downfalls were also pushed by the lack of good judgment in making the right choices and extreme anger to the point of rage when things did not go as they were suppose to. They were both placed in situations where they reacted with such rage it clouded their judgment. Fate was also a huge part of it seemingly. But as far as fate goes, it seems like Oedipus was forever running away from his fate by trying to escape the oracle's prophecy. One the other hand Medea was generally cold, manipulative and ruthless; She knew her mind well and did exactly what she wanted; she was leaving nothing to fate. Oedipus and Medea proved in both situations that in the end any action or choice comes with responsibility and consequences.
Aristotle identifies tragedy as the most refined version of poetry dealing with lofty matters and comedy as the most refined version of poetry dealing with base matters.
"Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of narrative; with incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to accomplish its Catharsis of such emotions. . . . Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality—namely, Plot, Characters, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, and Melody."
Tragedy is the "imitation of an action" (mimesis) according to "the law of probability or necessity." Aristotle indicates that the medium of tragedy is drama, not narrative; tragedy "shows" rather than "tells." According to Aristotle, tragedy is higher and more philosophical than history because history simply relates what has happened while tragedy dramatizes what may happen, "what is possible according to the law of probability or necessity." History thus deals with the particular, and tragedy with the universal. Events that have happened may be due to accident or coincidence; they may be particular to a specific situation and not be part of a clear cause-and-effect chain. Therefore they have little relevance for others. Tragedy, however, is rooted in the fundamental order of the universe; it creates a cause-and-effect chain that clearly reveals what may happen at any time or place because that is the way the world operates. Tragedy therefore arouses not only pity but also fear, because the audience can envision themselves within this cause-and-effect chain.
In his Poetics, Aristotle outlined the ingredients necessary for a good tragedy, and he based his formula on what he considered to be the perfect tragedy, Sophocles's Oedipus the King. According to Aristotle, a tragedy must be an imitation of life in the form of a serious story that is complete in itself; in other words, the story must be realistic and narrow in focus. A good tragedy will evoke pity and fear in its viewers, causing the viewers to experience a feeling of catharsis. Catharsis, in Greek, means "purgation" or "purification"; running through the gamut of these strong emotions will leave viewers feeling elated, in the same way we often claim that "a good cry" will make one feel better.
Aristotle also outlined the characteristics of a good tragic hero. He must be "better than we are," a man who is superior to the average man in some way. In Oedipus's case, he is superior not only because of social standing, but also because he is smart? He is the only person who could solve the Sphinx's riddle. At the same time, a tragic hero must evoke both pity and fear, and Aristotle claims that the best way to do this is if he is imperfect. A character with a mixture of good and evil is more compelling that a character who is merely good. And Oedipus is definitely not perfect; although a clever man, he is blind to the truth and refuses to believe Teiresias's warnings. Although he is a good father, he unwittingly fathered children in incest. A tragic hero suffers because of his Hamartia, a Greek word that is often translated as "tragic flaw" but really means "error in judgement." Often this flaw or error has to do with fate? A character tempts fate, thinks he can change fate or doesn't realize what fate has in store for him. In Oedipus the King, fate is an idea that surfaces again and again. The focus on fate reveals another aspect of a tragedy as outlined by Aristotle: dramatic irony. Good tragedies are filled with irony. The audience knows the outcome of the story already, but the hero does not, making his actions seem ignorant or inappropriate in the face of what is to come. Whenever a character attempts to change fate, this is ironic to an audience who knows that the tragic outcome of the story cannot be avoided.
The tragic flaw in Oedipus Rex's character is Hubris which translates to excessive pride.
There are many differences between Oedipus and Medea but in the end they ultimately destroy everything around them that they love the most because of the wrong choices they make in the face of anger. First of all however Medea does display some heroic qualities by showing that she is willing to do whatever is necessary to get the job done. In this case it was to be with Jason. As discussed before heroes are clever and resourceful. Medea certainly was both. Instead of using brute force to accomplish her plans, Medea uses her mind instead. Physical strength is always impressive but Medea uses cleverness and intelligence which are more impressive as heroic qualities. Things change a bit though when she poisons the King of Corinth with the poison gifts taken to him by her children. This plan makes Medea into the perfect villain. In this role of villain Medea's behaviour is then seen as cunning and manipulative and alternates between rational and irrational, and in the end is just plain evil. On the other hand Oedipus' downfall was his heroic quality of always seeking the truth no matter the cost. It was the need for truth that caused him to consult the oracle and learn about
the prophecy. This need for truth caused his sins to be revealed to the world. As with all heroes he would not stop until he had what he was after. He was not to be stopped until he had it. He sought the truth in the end though it was his pride that was responsible for his downfall. Pride was responsible for him not stepping aside at the crossroads. Heroes need to know when to use good judgment. Oedipus did not use good judgment. He let pride over ride that. It was pride that caused him to want to solve sphinx's riddle which helped fulfil the second part of the tragic prophecy. Also his pride played a part in his eagerness to find Laius's killer, believing that he was the only one who could do it and he wanted to show it off. Both Medea and Oedipus' downfalls were also pushed by the lack of good judgment in making the right choices and extreme danger to the point of rage when things did not go as they were supposed to. They were both placed in situations where they reacted with such rage it clouded their judgment. Fate was also a huge part of it seemingly. But as far as fate goes, it seems like Oedipus was forever running away from his fate by trying to escape the oracle's prophecy. One the other hand Medea was generally cold, manipulative and ruthless; She knew her mind well and did exactly what she wanted; she was leaving nothing to fate. Oedipus and Medea proved in both situations that in the end any action or choice comes with responsibility and consequences. Both were tragic.
Oedipus Rex is a tragedy by Sophocles. The play is considered a tragedy as it arouses editions of pity and fear. The protagonist undergoes catharsis and suffers due to hamartia (tragic error). The play also shows a downfall of the protagonist due to his pride. The tragic flaw of Oedipus is his hubris (excessive pride). His unwillingness to accept his fate to kill his father and then marry his mother led him to do the thing he feared the most.
Medea is a Greek tragedy by Euripides.The reversal of mood is an important part of the play.
This play is different from Oedipus Rex as Medea does not feel guilty after she kills many people including her sons. Her main aim is revenge no matter who the person is. She commits crime so that her husband Jason may suffer in grief. Her hamartia is passionate vengefulness because in the end everyone suffers except her whereas in Oedipus Rex the tragic hero Oedipus suffers along with his entire kingdom.
By Daphne Pearl De Souza
Thursday, April 02, 2015
Twenty four centuries ago a Chinese war advisor and philosopher, Sun
Tzu, wrote to explain what we today understand as Strategy in his
famous work 'The Art of War'. In his work he not only spoke about the
importance of positioning, which he terms as 'Shih'- a place where the
forces (army) have to be deployed so that it automatically gains an
advantage over its rivals, but also the idea of 'preparedness' to win
a war. There are so many statements and quotes of Sun Tzu that one
could get to read on the internet each explaining and exploring a
different dimension that can be readily compared to the nuances of
elements constituting today's business and policy studies.
One of the statements that is made in 'Art of War' goes "The best way
to win a war; is never to fight one". With such statements Sun Tzu
shifts the focus from the euphoria of war to resource acquisition and
retention. In all the thirty one principles, Sun Tzu discusses the
importance of resource management. Another important statement that is
mentioned in the 'Art of War'- "What everyone can see are my tactics
and what no one can identify are my strategies" throws light on
another important concept of strategy which is that it is made of a
series of carefully designed tactics.
Between 350BC and 270BC, a professor from Takshashila University named
Vishnusharma or kautilya who was also known popularly as Chanakya
wrote in his famous work- Arthashastra, tenets that can easily be
considered as ingredients of strategy. Kautilya brought together
knowledge from polity, administration, war sciences, commerce and
economics to demonstrate comprehensive understanding of knowledge of
strategy. This clearly shows the importance of cross functional
(disciplinary) relevance the subject strategy has if one needs to
understand it in its entirety. Kautilya, with his abundant knowledge,
helped Maurya dynasty to be formed and achieve the peak of its
prosperity and glory.
Much like Sun Tzu's art of war Von Clausewitz, a major general in the
German army writes in his book 'On War', in 1930, the importance of
avoiding a war. His influence can be seen in the American nuclear
deterrence under the belief that the best way to avoid a nuclear war
is to have the ability to engage in one. This approach of wanting to
avoid a major disaster by engaging in research and development to
acquire the required capability and resources to do so continues to
influence many countries as a part of their military strategy even
So what brings these thoughts and ideas about war so close to
businesses that in every board room discussion, the main agenda always
revolves around this enigmatic, often misunderstood term called
strategy? Well there are many reasons that show a similarity in the
way world is perceived during war time and the way the world of
business is perceived today. One of the most important reasons among
them is the complexity associated with decision making. The dynamics
involved in a war situation is not very different from the dynamics of
a market place. In both situations, recalling a decision is almost
impossible and even if it is done, is very expensive. Imagine a
situation in the battlefield when a particular troop is ordered to
attack and immediately ordered to retreat. Sounds much like a company
deciding to penetrate the market fully and the very next year deciding
to find a niche for itself.
With this background, now let us try to look at academic developments
that have happened in the area of strategy in business for the last
six to four decades. One particular school of thought that was
primarily advocated during 1960s is the positioning school of thought.
Here the practitioners as well as literati focused on opportunities
that organizations can identify and specify and enable itself to
capitalize on the same. Much like 'Art of War', here too strategy was
looked at a process or an approach to achieve that competitive
positioning. Some of the thinkers who contributed to this era are Igor
Ansoff, Chandler and Andrews.
During 1970s and 80s the idea of strategy graduated from being focused
on the reason behind strategizing to the content and process of
strategy. This time period is when the structure of strategic
management process was deliberated upon. There was a lot of emphasis
given to implementation of strategy and the way these initiatives were
reviewed and controlled. Although people such as Igor Ansoff continued
to contribute to the body of knowledge of strategy, some notable
thinkers like Henry Mintzberg and Michael Porter made remarkable
contribution that would stand relevant even today. Mintzberg's
emergent strategy and Michael Porter's notion of competitive advantage
are some of the most important aspects of discussion even in today's
business world and academia.
During the late 1980s and early 1990s saw a paradigm shift in the way
strategy was understood, taught and practiced. The idea of resource
based view; logical incrementalism took the subject of strategy into a
different direction. Some of the notable works that came during this
era are the concepts of core competence, value system and game theory.
Apart from Michael Porter and Ansoff who continued to contribute to
the area of study, this era saw thinkers such as Sumantra Goshal, C K
Prahalad, Gary Hamel and Jay Barney. The focus in this era was given
to internal capabilities and resources and ideas such as unrelated
diversification and asset acquisition were highly criticized.
2000 and onwards has seen new ideas and theories in the area of
strategy that has much to do with intangibles and the organizations'
take on managing these intangibles. Both from the firm point of view
as well as the industry point of view, thinkers have contributed to
the notion of intangibility that is associated with making a firm's
competitive advantage sustainable. While Prahalad and Hamel continued
to work on the idea of core competence, Andy Grove presented the
notion of inflection point. Much focus was given to the big term
called 'Innovation'. Along with innovation taking the front seat in
most of the novel thoughts presented by thinkers of strategy, there
are others such as 'dynamic capability', knowledge and process
management which were also widely discussed.
This note, as suggested in the beginning, provides a snapshot of
history of strategy as a discipline and brings together some of the
notable contributions in this area over the years very briefly. To get
a deeper understanding of the process of evolution, one must of course
look individually into all the aspects and identify possible linkages
between these nodes more strategically.
Institute of Management, Christ University
Tuesday, March 31, 2015
The genesis of the MBA department at Christ University (CU), earlier known as Christ College, was the result of AICTE's purpose to promote management education. In 1997, AICTE permitted Christ college to offer the MBA course under Bangalore University. The programme was offered by the Department of Commerce with dual specialization. The first batch began with about 20 students and the student number doubled in the following year. From the start, the department focused on making the programme unique by initiating activities such as Organization Structure Training (OST), Book Review and Dissertation apart from the mandatory Summer Internship Project. The OST was the first glimpse of an organization for an incumbent in the MBA programme. Since the class was a diverse mix of students from different educational background streams, it was pertinent to orient them to management thinking and philiosophy and this led to the launch of another important co-curricular activity, the book review. These flagship activities continue to make the MBA programme unique.
Over the years the student strength increased gradually and the MBA programme was managed by its own department. One of the first strategic shifts occurred in 2007 when Christ College was granted the autonomy to design its own curriculum. The department also initiated the single specialization programme by offering a choice of Finance, Marketing and Human Resources specialization courses. During the same year the MBA department signed an MOU with FHWS, Germany for a twinning programme.
Another turning point in the department was in 2009 when Christ College (Autonomous) was granted the deemed university status. There were several other key events that contributed to the growth of the department. The department signed another MOU with Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU), USA for a twinning programme. The university launched MBA programme in another campus in the city of Bangalore. The following year one more specialization stream, Lean Operations and Management was offered to the students. In 2013, General Management was offered as another specialization stream.
Over the years the student numbers grew exponentially which also made it vital to increase the faculty strength. The demand for the MBA programme offered by the University is a testimonial that the brand has established itself in the market. The brand started as an unknown entity and in a decade and half, it became a brand that was reckoned by several companies from across industries for prospective employees.
By 2015, the university offered the regular MBA programme and the PGDM programmes of FHWS and VCU under the deanery of management. The deanery continued its journey by aligning itself to the university's goal to achieve excellence and emerge as a world class institution by reengineering its courses, launching new activities, forging alliances with industry partners, emphasizing on research and striving to offer quality management education.
Compiled by Bharathi Gopal
Tumkur University was established in 2004 in Tumkur, Karnataka, India. It was carved out of Bangalore University to accommodate the needs of the students from Tumkur district. Established under the Karnataka State Universities Act, 2000, as a multi-faculty university,
Tumkur University was previously known as The University College of Science (erstwhile Government Science College) was established in 1940. Beginning as an intermediate college, it was upgraded to a full-fledged First Grade college with Bachelors courses in various disciplines in BSc courses in different combinations such as PCM, PMG etc. were introduced.
In 2008, the Post Graduate courses were introduced in Physics, 'Prof. CNR Centre for Advanced Materials', an ambitious project was started in 2009, after which the research work has accelerated. Under this institution many research projects are taking place in the department of physics sponsored by many government organizations such as DST, CSIR etc.
Suman G. R.
Monday, March 30, 2015
Christ University was born out of the educational vision of Saint Kuriakose Elias Chavara, the founder of CMI congregation. Saint Chavara was a great educationalist and a social reformer of the 19th century. He could foresee the changes in the environment and make strategic moves to build a better society based on fatherhood of God and brotherhood of humanity.Carmelites of Mary Immaculate (CMI), the first indigenous religious congregation of India with a membership of around 3000, renders its service to humanity in educational, social, health care and other activities aiming at the integral development of the society.
In 2005, it became the first College in South India to be reaccredited with A+ by NAAC. UGC identified it as an Institution with Potential for Excellence in 2006.
On July 22, 2008, a glorious day in the history of the Institution, the Ministry of Human Resources Development, Union Government of India, under Section 3 of the UGC Act, 1956, vide Notification No. F. 9-34/2007-U.3(A), declared it a Deemed to be University, in the name and style of Christ University.
Christ University is rooted in Gospel values, and is committed to provide Holistic education through the development of intellectual competence, personal skills, inter-personal skills and societal skills. The University welcomes to its fold students from all over the country in an environment of religious harmony and secularism.
Due to the introduction of innovative and modern curricula, insistence on academic discipline, imparting of Holistic Education, a team of creative and dedicated staff, the institution has been continually rated amongst the top 10 educational institutions of the country. It has the rare distinction of being the first institution in Karnataka to be accredited by National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) UGC for quality education. In 2004, UGC conferred Autonomy on the Institution.
Christ University offers various courses ranging from undergraduate to Doctorate. It Offers various courses in Master in Philosophy in different streams i.e. chemistry, commerce, law, philosophy, computer science, economics, education, psychology, mathematics, management, English, social work, physics, tourism, media studies and sociology. Christ University, since 1991 with a clearly defined approach for creating quality managers and entrepreneurs required to face the challenges of the corporate sector.
Master of philosophy (M.Phil) is awarded under the guidance of two departments. This course started nearly six years back i.e. 2009.
Institute of Management
Christ University Institute of Management (CUIM) was established in 1994. The Management program at Christ University Institute of Management (CUIM) is a professional 2- year PG program with specialization in Marketing, Finance, General Management, Human Resource & Lean Operations. The curriculum designed by CUIM is such that it provides students the best of opportunities and a launching pad for careers.
At CUIM, every student goes through a wide spectrum of experiences which include the Organization Structure Study, Outbound Training, Book Review Competition, Summer Internships, Current Affairs & Weekly Presentations and Dissertation.
Department of Management
The department offers undergraduate courses in Business Management and Administration and Masters Programme in Management and Finance that are challenging and specifically designed to develop and enhance career opportunities and to contribute in the dissemination of academic and applied knowledge in business management.
The Master of Philosophy in Management is a one and half year programme designed and well-founded for smooth transition into advanced research including doctoral level (Ph. D) and suitable for academicians, researchers, corporate and others. The program is a one and half year, two semesters, and based on a credit system. The submission of a dissertation at the end of the second semester is compulsory to complete the programme.
The programme equips the researcher to aspire for higher disciplinary and methodological competences in research. The program is rigorous and includes four theory papers and a dissertation.
The pedagogy includes paper presentations, research colloquia, SPSS and other tools training end term exam, case study, article critique and other media. The program provides the requisite knowledge, skills and abilities for planning, designing, engaging and interpreting research data for problem solving and consultancy for researchers, academicians, practitioners, and corporate.
The course also enhances the ability to think systematically, and apply quantitative methods and provide the scholars the knowledge, skills and insights in identifying and solving problems in the management area independently. The programme also focuses on creating a pool of manpower with the requisite competencies to contribute to the educational & higher learning institutes, research institutes and organizations, Government and nongovernmental organizations, Training and consultancy organizations.
HISTORY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING IN CHRIST UNIVERSITY
Sujatha A K
Reg No: 1447102
Computer science and Engineering is a discipline that spans theory and practice. It requires thinking both in abstract terms and in concrete terms. The practical side of computing can be seen everywhere. Nowadays, practically everyone is a computer user, and many people are even computer programmers. Getting computers to do what you want them to do requires intensive hands-on experience. But Engineering in Computer Science can be seen on a higher level, as a science of problem solving. It embodies the science and technology of design, construction, implementation, and maintenance of software and hardware components of modern computing systems and computer-controlled equipment.
History of Christ University:
Christ University was formerly Christ College (Autonomous) affiliated to Bangalore University. Established in July 1969, Christ College became the most preferred educational institution in the city of Bangalore within the first three decades. From 1990 onwards it scaled from heights to heights. By the introduction of innovative and modern curriculum, insistence on academic discipline, imparting of Holistic Education and with the help of the creative and dedicated staff, Christ College has been continually rated among the top 10 educational institutions of the country. It has the rare distinction to be the first institution in Karnataka to be accredited by National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) UGC for quality education. On 7 October 2004, UGC has conferred Autonomy to Christ College (No.F.13-1/2004). On May 20, 2005, it became the first College in South India to be reaccredited with A+ by NAAC. UGC has identified it as an Institution with Potential for Excellence in June 2006.
July 22, 2008 is the most glorious day in the history of the institution. Under Section 3 of the UGC Act, 1956, Ministry of Human Resources Development of the Union Government of India, vide Notification No. F. 9-34/2007-U.3 (A), has declared it a Deemed to be University, in the name and style of Christ University
History of Computer Science and Engineering in Christ University:
The Discipline of Computer Science and Engineering, a 4 year Under Graduate Programme in Christ University was started in the year 2009 with 5 students and 1 faculty member. The initial importance of the study was on Programming Paradigms and the fundamental objective was to provide the opportunity for our students to develop a firm foundation in Mathematics, Science, and Design Methodology. The teaching pedagogy was limited to just Class Room Teaching and Power Point Presentations.
Later in the year 2011, 3 more programmes augmented, a 4 year Under Graduate Programme in Information technology, 2 year Post Graduate Programme in Computer Science and Engineering and a PhD programme. Also certificate programmes in Algorithms and Matlab too was included in the curriculum to enhance learning skills and to cope up with the Industry Standards. The importance of the study changed towards the soft computing skills. In the year 2013, a Post Graduate Programme in Information Technology started. The teaching methods evolved with the usage of Video Films on actual situations, Case Studies, Seminars, Industry visits, Poster Presentations, Projects and the MOODLE – A Learning Management System.
Evolution from Teacher Centric Teaching to Student Centric Teaching, The Discipline covers all fundamentals, working and expert subjects that provides enough learning environment where students understand and are able to apply the most contemporary and essential tools needed in the breadth and depth of computer science and engineering.
Also the department provides various skills and activities like Leadership, Management, and Placement through a common forum named ASCII (Association for Students of Computer Science and Engineering and Information Technology with Innovation). The department assist our students in developing and evaluating methods that encourage them to continue to learn after leaving the university and aims for students to become Academic Intellectual Entrepreneurs.
Today, the Discipline has evolved to address highly specialized and specific application needs of the world including various domains like Data Sciences, Machine Learning, Digital Image Processing, Cloud Computing and so on. Today all these programmes in the Department are aiming for Holistic Development of an Individual and to Foster ethical computational excellence in all areas of technology and to benchmark the Institute as one of the top-notch global institutions.
Ph. Office: +91 - 80 - 4012 - 9907
Mob: +91 - 9900899330
History of Computer science department in Christ University.
Christ University Computer science department started in 1989 with the introduction of CMS
Later MCA is added in 1994 and CME in1996 ,BCA 2000,Msc 2007, MSc Computer Science (Working Professionals) 2009.Syllabus constantly underwent changes and many topics added over time.1990's Software Architecture, OOAD, Embedded Systems were added, In 2000 DBA, Data Warehousing and Data Mining were added, 2010 Cloud Computing and Mobile Application,ADBMS and NO SQL were introduced.
Major Challenges: Department boomed till 2000, 2001 it faced recession. 2009 it faced Recession again but placement the placements remain unaffected. Hence people like Christ University students.
In 2004 BCA/MSC/MCA got divided and merged as a single department in 2009.Research focused learning started from 2009
From: BENNY THOMAS 1445001 <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Date: Sat, Mar 28, 2015 at 8:38 AM
Subject: History of Computer science department at Christ university
Department of Computer Science started in Christ University in 1989 with bachelor's degree in computer science.MCA started in Christ College by 1994. Later BCA and Mphil computer science were also introduced. Now the Computer Science department has MCA,BCA, BSC , Mphil and MSc in computer application courses. Department has nearly 30 faculties and nearly 1000students.
Mahatma Gandhi University was established on 2 October 1983 in Kottayam. Mahatma Gandhi University (formerly Gandhiji University), has been accredited (B+) by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council, India. The university has more than 10 affiliated colleges spread over five districts in central Kerala. The University campus is in the Priyadarsini Hills, 13 kilometers from Kottayam Railway Station and 4 kilometers from Ettumanoor.
The School of Pure and Applied Physics (SPAP) is the Department of Physics of Mahatma Gandhi University. The SPAP was established in 1983 along with the establishment of Mahatma Gandhi University. University Grant Commission (UGC) has identified School as a center of Potential research through SAP-DRS (Special Assistance Programme- Departmental Research Support) program and Basic Science Research (BSR) program. Department of Science and Technology (DST) has sanctioned financial assistance through Fund for Improvement of S&T Infrastructure in Universities and Higher Educational Institutions (FIST) program. Within this period the School has developed into one of the premier research and postgraduate centres of Kerala. The School offers MSc, Mphil and PhD programmes in Physics.
SPAP started the MSc course with specializations in Materials Science, Astrophysics, Applied Electronics and Theoretical Physics. Then it excluded Applied electronics and Theoretical Physics from the specialization streams. In 2014, the curriculum was modified to include Material science, Astrophysics, Theoretical physics, Photonics, and Plasma physics as specializations in MSc course. M. Sc. and M. Phil Courses follows the Credit and Semester system. The total number of seats for the MSc programme is 20, and for Mphil progranne it is 10 seats. Admission is based on written admission test and personal Interviews conducted by the Institute. The Institute also provides 100% placement for its students.
The major areas of research in School are Materials Science, Spectroscopy, Theoretical Physics, Nanomaterials and Ceramics, Biomaterials, Nanotechnology, Crystallography, Astrophysics, Cosmology, Plasma Physics, Solar Physics and Crystalline materials. The theoretical research group of SPAP includes Dr. Chandu Venugopal(Plasma Physics), Dr. K. Indulekha (Astrophysics)and Dr. S.Antony (Solar Physics). The Experimental research group of SPAP includes Dr. N. V. Unnikrishnan, Dr. C. Sudarsanakumar (Director) and Dr. K. Nandakumar, Dr. Cyriac Joseph and Dr. P. R. Biju. The research efforts of SPAP have resulted in the publication of nearly 500 research papers in internationally reputed journals.
The research facilities of the center are advanced and very comprehensive and they include the following:
X-ray Diffractometer, Spectrofluorimeter, UV-Visible Spectrophotometer, Ultrasonic Velocity Measuring System, Metallurgical Microscope, Advanced Fluorescence, Microscope, Impedance Analyzers, Microhardness Tester, keithley Electrometer, Vacuum Coating Units, Photomicrographic equipment, Programmable furnace, Crystal Cutter, Spectroradiometer, Spin Coater, Refrigerated circulator Bath. Recently (In 2014) they have installed Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in Material science Lab.
The SPAP forum provides a common platform for former and present members of the School of Pure and Applied Physics. The activities of the forum, which were started in 1997, include creating a stage for its members to interact with eminent persons, to share ideas and work together in academic as well as other areas. Those who had worked for the early development of the School will have a lot of experience to share through the forum, which acts as a binding force. The alumni members working in National/International institutes often visit the parent department for delivering lectures and to interact with the students. The forum also plays a major role in non-academic activities in the School.
The faculty members of the School of Pure and Applied Physics are providing free consultancy services to the teachers and researchers of the nearby institutions and affiliated colleges. The School has initiated an open center for industrial consultancy and instrumentation.