Types of Translation
Translation theories were largely formed around Bible translations in the sixteenth century. Etienne Dolet is credited with the first formulation of a theory of translation
Dryden, one of the earliest English translation theorists, classifies translation into three types – metaphrase – word for word, line for line rendering, paraphrase – where in translating sense is given more importance, and imitation where sense matters in translation.
Horaces Ars Poetica trs by Ben Jonson - metaphrase
Virgil’s Aenid trs by Waller – paraphrase
Pindar’s two odes by Abraham Cowley – imitation
In 1789 George Campbell suggest three criteria for good translation
- There should be just representation of the original
- The spirit and manner of the original should be conveyed through consistency with the language of the translation
- The translation should have the quality of an original performance so as to appear natural and easy.
In 1790 Alexander Taylor in The Principles of Translation set up three different principles
- The translation should give a complete transcript of the idea of the original work
- The style and manner of writing should be of the same character with that of the original.
- The translation should have all the case of the original composition.
Goethe suggests two modes of translation
First, the translator attempts to bring foreign author to his reader and through the second the reader is taken to the author. It involves the ‘adoption’ of the foreign writer into the native literary tradition in terms of its language and culture without sacrificing the spirit of the original .
Second, where readers are taken to the author involves a word for word, line by line faithful translation
In the twentieth century radical ideas developed about translation. Roman Jacobson classified the twentieth century translation into three categories
- Intralingual – rewording in the same language
- Interlingual – translation into some other language
- Intersemiotic – translation across media
Theodore Savory makes a comprehensive division into four groups.
First Group: Belongs to all statements of a purely informative in character such as those seen by a traveler like, notices instructions etc It has plain unemotional language
Second group: To this belong all popular translations meant for general reader.
Third group: - most important of all groups as it contains all scholarly translations of literary classes with commentaries and discussions on how good and how perfect the renderings are done by different translators in different times.
Fourth group: Contains all learned and scientific and technical publications.
Andre Lefevere catalogues seven strategies of translations
- Phonemic translations
- Literal translations
- Metrical translations
- Poetry into Prose
- Rhymed translation
- Blank verse translation
Some more theories of Translation
- Medium restricted translation theories
- Area restricted translation theories
- Rank-restricted translation theories
- Text-type restricted theories
- Time-restricted theories
- Problem-restricted theories
- Write a note on Andre Lefevere’s strategies of translation
- Write a note on Theodore Savory’s division translation
- Give a brief history of translation theories
- Write a note on types of translation