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Thursday, July 15, 2010

Mapping of the essay by Shilpi Rana

Shilpi Rana

Map of the essay “Mapping” by Lucy R. Lippard.

I.1) Multiculturalism

I.2) ‘Multiculturalism’ – East Indian scholars Kumkum Sangari observes – ‘ poised in a liminal space – having broken out of binary opposition between circular and linear – gives third space and time - to emerge’. The author here suggests as per white ethnographer James Clifford’s view – not to look on elements of foreign culture - only to make – her own culture – unexplained.

II.1) Racism enhances cultural difference.

II.2) The term race – commonly denotes culture – social phenomenon – historical background – harm to economic interest – expands ethnic difference.

III.1) Cultural biasness can be fruitful to the neglected races.

III.2) The contribution – underestimated races – not overlooked. In the Euro-American society – presence of the ideas of Africans, native Americans, Asians and Latino cultures can be felt. Rejections – ideas – subjugated races – resulted – development – prominent ideas, images and values – which otherwise have been lost.

IV.1) Changing facet of the United States.

IV .2) In the past few years – U.S.A trying to break – concept of monotonous “ white” – time for healthier social understanding.

V.1) Culture determines artist’s acknowledgement.

V.2) Demographics – argued change in society as per culture. Controllers of markets and institutions – appreciations of the artist’s.

VI. 1) Awareness is a slow process.

VI.2) Differences – not just ‘racial’ in nature – also other forms like gender, class, belief system religion, politics. Change not a sudden activity so the difference in the boundaries are segregated slowly.

VII.1) ‘Quality’ as a notion amongst the artist’s too.

VII.2) it is said that racism does not interfere with art. But the notion of good taste – social order- not possible. Art – controlled- specific group of people- artist’s work- according to – the buyers of their work. Many artist’s – unaware of the differene- choose a different path- follow self censorship.

VIII.1) Limits to the equality of the racist often caused by the political statements in art.

VIII.2) Good piece of art – by the pupil of colour- acknowledged by silence or with tears of pleasure- followed by dark truths of separations and competition.

IX.1) Artist’s work is also influenced by his community.

IX.2) Great challenge – artists – creates something – affects community. Often – silenced – by notion “ art speaks for itself” – forge responsibilities – stereotypes himself and his community.

X.1) Do we actually follow the theme of universality in art?

X.2) Advocates of cultural democracy – wide view of art – but regarded as the “lowest denominator of art” Art does not actually reach the lower strata of people – detached from their lives.

XI.1) Artists must acknowledge the source of there work of indigenous cultures.

XI.2) Modernism – made way – various cultural amalgamations. No proper responses – by the whites – should have humility for others.

XII.1) Art of the third world nations should focus on the modern day’s requirements to create bodings.

XII.2) Art according to different cultural backgrounds – view on the pros and cons – not on the new context – from which new understanding can evolve enhancing growth and mutual understanding. Dynamism is required.

XIII.1) Post modernism view.

XIII.2) post modern analysis – not to consider other cultures passive and western civilisation superior.

XIV .1) Rights of the women and the artist’s of the colour.

XIV.2) Constant struggle – perceive as “subject” rather than “ object” – independence of work and identity. 1960’s – feminist movement – recreation of identity – equality
with Euro Americans.

XV.1) Is subjectivity a problem?

XV.2) Appreciation of “nationalism” can also be a problem. Our politics is essentially becoming rebellious. Artist’s suddenly – creating – own perspectives – threat to society.

XVI.1) Personal subjectivity also alluding to the relationships between “ first” and “ third” world countries.

XVI.2) Threat – not only personal – also cause several tensions – conservative and radical discourses.
XVII.1) reconstruction leading to intectualization .

XVII.2) The author encourages destabilisation – helps to reconstruct – invention of identity – amalgamation of conscious past and budding new ideas.

XVIII.1) Unfamiliarity encourages creativity.

XVIII.2) There is a mission for art to. Culture includes entire fabric of life. Art, when view from different angles forms beautiful art objects with new definitions.

XIX.1) The artist’s approach.

XIX.2) Artist’s – belief, hope and heal. Have a common idea towards an ethnocentric culture.

XX.I) Differences in a process of resolving but the naming of categories remains the same.

XX.2) Frustration – opposition – contradiction involved – cross cultural system. Convenient places – women and pupil of colour – naming remains the same.

XXI.1) Artist’s of colour replace third world Artists.

XXI.2) Accepted in 1970’s – third world courtiers – people of colour born in – according to artist Paul Kagawa, artist’s create works- supporting values of ruling class – ruling class artist’s create no matter what colour an vice versa.

XXII.1) Does geography define third world and first world countries?

XXII.2) Question came up in 1988 – according to Korean American artist’s Yong Soon Mui – even within economically developed countries – third world – politically valid- indicates resistance to third world imperialism and had experienced of colonialism.

XXIII.1) “ Minority” artists – another used term.

XXIII.2) Among the artists – people of colour – minority – only in US and Canada - but not globally.

XXIV.1) Concept of mixed or cross- cultural.

XXIV.2) The author uses the terms mixed or cross cultural instead of using multi cultural or multi racial – because of working together – includes the whites too.

XXV.1) The term “ethnic”.

XXV.2) Ethnicism is also now an excluded phenomenon – posing problems between people.

XXVI.1) Author’s instance on the word “intercultural” .
XXVI.2) The author prefers “intercultural” to cross-cultural- term suggests broader meaning – up to the centre.


Lippard,Lucy R.”Mapping.”Art in Modern Culture:An Anthology of Critical Texts.
Eds. Francis Franscina, and Jonathan Harris . London / Newyork. Phaidon,
1992. Print.

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