Jesu Raju Thomas
History of Management Education:
History of Management is ageless. Philosophy of Management is standard and systematic operation procedure used in business for profit making. Business may not be act of making profit only because NGOs are also involved in business but their act not related to making profit. NGOs are involved in raising funds and using funds for the stated purpose for the up-liftment of marginalised but they also in need of systematic management to deliver their services effectively. Management is a need of the hour in managing a small family to managing conglomerate businesses.
The verb manage arrives from the Italian word maneggiare which means to handle especially tools. The word manage derives from the Latin word manus. Management has involved in every kind of activity whether it is a family event, sport event or managing Business. Complexity of such activity also increasing day by day so discipline of management continuingly searching for new solution for the problems. As a result it is continuously emerging from ages. The conceptualisation of management happened during 18thand 19th century. Industrial revolution in the 18th and 19th century resulted in many approaches to management. Before the Industrial revelation owners used to maintain their business so there was not much systematic recording of the transaction. Industrial revolution made the businesses to grow and ownership also changed from individual to shareholders, groups. To manage the business different hierarchy of managers are emerged to manage the operation of the business. This resulted in the development of formal training institutions for the managers. Many education institutions are started courses on Management.
Management is a process of converting the resources to utility. Management involves the five major functions they are Planning, Directing, Organising, Staffing, Directing, Controlling. Management is the process of using human capital of an enterprise to contribute to the success of the enterprise or any institutions.
The concept of management has existed for millennia. The concept of strengths and weakness of managers are used in 6th Century BC by Chinese general Sun Tzu, The Art of War.
Arthashastra by Chanakya which was written around 3000 BC discuss about best practices of govern. The wealth of Nations by Adam Smith in 1776 explains about efficient organisation work by division of labour.
During 19th century many management theories are developed such as resource allocation, production and pricing. There was also development technical production such as standardization, quality control, cost accounting. In late 19th century salaried managers were existed in large corporation.
Scholars like tried to apply the principle of other streams such as psychology, production, sociology to management. The Harvard Business School offered first Master of Business Management degree in 1921. End of the 20th century business management became one of the specialised streams with separate branches namely Human resources Management, operation management, strategic management, Marketing, Financial management, information technology management.
In the 21st century management theory became part of major disciplines. Management concepts are used in NGOs, Government, and Educational institutions etc.
The history of important first business schools are as follows
1855 - The Institut Supérieur de Commerce d'Anvers and the Institut Saint-Ignace;
1871 – The Rouen Business School
1881 – The Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania is the United States' first business school. (PENNSYLVANIA, 2014)
1902 - The Birmingham Business School is the United Kingdom's first business school. (The independent, 2010)
1908 - Harvard Business School was founded at Harvard University. It was the first program in the world to offer the Master of Business Administration degree in 1921.
1909 - Charles H. Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management They founded undergraduate business program.
1946 – The Thunderbird School of Global Management, then called the American Institute for Foreign Trade, focused exclusively on global business.
1949 – The University of Pretoria in South Africa founded the oldest business school in Africa.
1949 - XLRI - India's oldest business management school is founded
1954 - The Faculty of Management Studies (FMS), University of Delhi is among one of the oldest business schools in India (Faculty of Management Studies University of Delhi, 2014)
1955 - The Institute of Business Administration, Karachi was the first business school to be established outside North America to offer an MBA degree
1994 – CEIBS (China Europe International Business School) was the first business school in China to have received funding from a foreign government, namely the European Commission.
Business schools are first established in Europe followed by America and Asia. XLRI and FMS are the old management institutions of India.
The important people who contributed for the development of management theory are as follows
1856 – 1915: Fredric Winslow Taylor (Father of Scientific Management)– Designing jobs which improved the industrial efficiency. He is the Author of principle of scientific management.
1864-1920: Max Weber – Management organisation and structure. He has developed Bureaucratic Theory of management
1880–1949: Elton Mayo- Hawthorne Studies. He was also Harvard Professor recommend that managers should become people oriented
1844 – 1924: Henry R. Towne laid emphasis on the need of study of management separately and to learn. He was the first to come up with a new social role for engineers and to understand the importance of management techniques for engineers.
The important management theories developed are Scientific Management by Frederick Taylor, Taylor’s Four Principles of Management, General Administrative Theory by Herial Fayol and Weber’s Ideal Bureaucracy.
Management study became very popular due to the need of the hour for all kind or organisation. Due to the globalisation and need of different level hierarchy in the large organisation created opportunities for the managers with knowledge and experience of management. At present there are many management related courses in different educational institutions.
Authrstream. (n.d.). Retrieved March 31, 2014, from www.authrstream: http://www.authorstream.com/presentation/bhavin2750-1324264-the-development-of-management-theory/
Wikipedia. (2014, March 31). Retrieved March 31, 2014, from Wikipedia.org: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki.Business_school