and the problem of the visual in Afro-American culture
1) Topic sentence: The case of Brown vs Bard of education in 1954
-Supreme court judged-segregated schools-unequal and discriminatory-tests revealed that the self-esteem-children gets damaged-racism.
Racism and segregation damaged the self esteem of Black children
2) Topic sentence: Debates on Clark's research
-Scientific validity-testing methods-documentary opened Clark's research showing small Black children-choosing white doll-black doll-Unusual for media to refer back to this research-evidence-racism-deprivational experience-interpreting-stereotypical line.
It is not at all unusual for the media to refer back to this research as evidence that racism is an unambiguously deprivational experience
3) Topic sentence: Blacks are disfranchised than whites
Profiles of a black regiment of fighter pilots-world war 2-newly appointed black chairman-offered as corrective.
Nor beauty nor aesthetics nore hype culture were raised as precipitating factors
4)Topic sentence: poverty and powerlessness feed a child's perception
Process –much-complex-direct correlation-encompass-society –operative evaluation –images-further inscribed by skin colour-affect children' opinion on race
Keyword: not only the presence of "negative black" stereotypes in schoolbook illustrations in mass media in general is crucial dynamic never accounted for
5) TOPIC SENTENCE: The power of images and words
Mentioned in Toni Morrison's use of the dick and Jane-to potray –domination of whites –bluest eye-absence of black image-could produce-void-racial questions –Clark's findings
Keyword: cynicism inappropriate to childhood.
6) Topic sentence: we all know in our hearts ,as mere child in our midst today must know ,that "nigger", "is used to mean "other" and yet we persist in denying it.
In 1979-Donald Neuman - designated –exhibition of charcoal-as "nigger drawings"- in 1989-when Jackie Mason –mayoral candidate –"schwartze"
Keyword: Bourgeois humanism, colour is an innately trivial matter.
7) Topic sentence: how one is seen (as a black)and, therefore ,what one sees(in a white world) is always already crucial to one's existence as Afro-American
Dark skin- kinky/curly hair-are visual-invisibility- according to Ralph Elison
Leads-racists –interpretation-you are unable to see.
Thesis statement: This has meant ,among other things, that Afro-Americans have not produced a tradition in the visual arts as vital and compelling to other Americans as the Afro- Americans tradition in music
8) Topic sentence: Black artists are not as widely accepted as black writer's is because shifts in art historical judgements result in extraordinary contingencies
Closed economic nepotism-art world –perpetuate –the -situation
Keyword: Artists of colour face an industry –wide "restraint of trade", limiting their ability to show and sell their work.
9)Topic sentence:"Race" was frequently discussed in my family room,although "racism was not.
Such word entered common parlance –colored to refer-his own people-ablack boy –corrected –saying-negro-Negro –refered-militant word-Black as a description of race
10)TOPIC SENTENCE: according to Raymond williamsin Marxism and literature ,hegemony is a process that relies up on the mechanism of traditions and cannons of
Old masters in order to waylay the utopian desires that are potentially embodied in cultural production .
Concept of tradition- behind contemporary –variations on tradition –feminist—Afro –American –they are –radically selective –maintaining dominance –brutual status quo.
11)Topic sentence:more specifically it was Picasso and modernism ,in general ,that epitomized the art historical moment of greatest fascination
The debate-picasso-cubism- -subsequent-modernists borrowed- African art –black middle class intelligentsia-50s -60s –white American –high modernism-borrowed-Africa